One of the major developmental purposes of schooling is that of independence which is seen as the outcome of competence and confidence. The capacities for independent thought, independent judgment and independent action are highly valued. However, a concern with developing independence needs to be balanced by a concern with interdependence. Schools and families have long recognised that they have a role in the development of interdependence. A sense of interdependence is at the heart of the social outcomes of schooling because it concerns relations with other individuals, groups and institutions. This paper examines individual and school influences on interdependence.
Ainley, John, "Individual and School Influences on Interdependence" (2004).