The most recent OECD Programme for International Assessment (PISA) survey enables educators, policy makers and the wider community to compare Australian students with each other, as well as their counterparts across the world. PISA measures the extent to which 15-year-old students near the end of compulsory education have acquired the knowledge and skills that young adults need to meet the challenges of the future. This issue of Snapshots looks to the data from PISA on similarities and differences in student performance by sex to inform education policies, improve educational outcomes and equity.