Publication Date



Curriculum development, Curriculum evaluation, Secondary school students, Vocational education and training, Educational change


This paper is a research ‘backgrounder’ to support the 2018–19 review of the New South Wales (NSW) curriculum. It focuses on the topic of ‘integrating’ vocational education and training (VET) programs for secondary school students, which has been identified as an area of interest in the review. The paper begins by detailing the context, in Australia and internationally, for the introduction and expansion of vocational offerings within secondary schooling (Section 1). It then reviews the available research literature and policy documents on VET programs for secondary school students in Australia, including a review of the benefits and challenges (Section 2). The paper draws on a range of international models that have – with varying success – integrated ‘general’ and ‘vocational’ education within their secondary education systems and structures (Section 3). It concludes with a set of conclusions and proposals for consideration (Section 4).

Place of Publication



NSW Education Standards Authority

Geographic Subject

New South Wales

Article Location