Publication Date



Cooperative learning, Group activities, Generic skills, Interpersonal competence, Frameworks, Definitions, Primary secondary education


The definition of any skill or construct is essential prior to the assessment, teaching, or development of pedagogical resources in relation to the skill. The ACER collaboration framework is designed to support researchers and educators with a clear definitional model from which to base their understanding and development of the skill. This collaboration framework has been developed to address the challenges associated with teaching and assessing collaboration. While there are many definitions of the skill, which are outlined in the first part of this document, few provide a means to operationalise collaboration in the classroom. This framework is designed to synthesise and harmonise existing theory and research on collaboration to provide a holistic perspective. It outlines collaboration processes along prescribed strands and aspects that are informed by a sound evidentiary basis. The aspects contained within the framework are designed to provide foci for teaching and the basis of assessment.

Place of Publication

Camberwell, Australia


Australian Council for Educational Research