The Relationship between Teaching, Learning and Digital Assessment. Literature Review

Publication Date



Digital technology, Student assessment, Online assessment, Learning progressions, Continuous assessment, Mathematics teaching, Science teaching, Literacy education, History teaching, Surveys, Interviews, Data, Literature review, Primary education, Middle years, Secondary education


Report submitted to the International Baccalaureate Organisation by the Australian Council for Educational Research.

The first draft of this literature review was developed by Professor Kathryn Moyle, Dr Antonio Mercurio, Pru Mitchell and Kevin McRae.

Revisions were made by Anit Cherian, Dr Sarah Richardson, Dr Sladana Krstic and Dr Shani Sniedze-Gregory. Further input has been provided by Daniele Cavassa, Bethany Davies, Stewart Monkton, Abha Bhagat, Bikramjit Sen, Dr Hilary Hollingsworth, Dr Mariya Khatoon, Dr Vijaya Raghavan and Jenny Trevitt, while Gail Erwood has provided administrative support.

The authors would like to thank the IBO for the opportunity and funding to undertake such timely research. In particular, we would like to thank Dr Sarah Manlove (Research Manager, IBO), who has provided thoughtful direction, and access to key people and resources, to enable this literature review to be prepared. Thanks is also given to the Advisory Group for their insightful review and input.


This literature review examines the key trends shaping education in the second decade of the 21st century and identifies how these can inform and strengthen practices within International Baccalaureate (IB) programmes. It explores how learning, teaching and assessment have evolved over time and looks at how notions of assessment have both reflected and informed ideas about learning, particularly with relation to learning progressions. The introduction of digital technologies into the learning and teaching space has transformed the understandings of what knowledge, application, understanding, achievement and success mean, and the review looks at the impact this has had on teaching practice.

Place of Publication

The Hague, Netherlands


International Baccalaureate Organization