Publication Date



Citizen participation, Literacy education, Numeracy, Disadvantaged, Educational policy, Developing countries, Student assessment, Reading tests, Mathematics tests, Measures, Case studies, Primary education


This topical case study is the fourth in the Using Assessment Data in Education Policy and Practice: Examples from the Asia-Pacific series initiated by the Network on Education Quality Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific (NEQMAP) at UNESCO Bangkok and the Global Education Monitoring Centre (GEM Centre).

Series editors: Mark Manns, UNESCO Bangkok and Ursula Schwantner, Australian Council for Educational Research.


Designed as household-based assessments, citizen-led assessments (CLAs) are implemented by local organizations who assess children in their homes, thus reaching the most marginalized children, families, and communities, often in remote areas. CLAs add an essential piece of information for truly monitoring progress and help realistically represent the learning levels of all children – at national, regional, and global levels. By using simple tools and easy-to-understand reports, CLAs engage parents and community members in discussions about learning and help foster understanding of the importance of ensuring quality education through civil action. In this publication, members from organizations conducting CLAs in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh provide an overview of the CLA model and illustrate a range of ways in which the model has been implemented in the four South Asian countries to monitor and improve learning. In all four countries, the initiative is known as the Annual Status of Education Report, or ASER – a word that means ‘impact’ in three of these four countries. By design, ASER assesses foundational reading and numeracy skills.

Place of Publication

Melbourne Australia


Australian Council for Educational Research


978 1 74286 636 9



Geographic Subject

Asia, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pacific region, Pakistan