Global education monitoring

Publication Date



Pairwise comparison, Learning progressions, Monitoring (Assessment), International comparisons, Equal education, Females, Males, Reading, Mathematics, Minimum competencies, Workshops


This toolkit has been co-authored by the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Centre at the Australian Council for Education Research (ACER) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics (UIS). ACER provides technical support to UIS, which has been mandated to monitor the progress of countries towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) in education to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” (United Nations, 2021). The GEM Centre sponsors and contributes to public goods and activities that facilitate education systems reporting against SDG 4 in a globally consistent way. Consistent and high-quality monitoring of student learning will help systems understand the strengths they have and the challenges they face. Moreover, it provides evidence to inform the development of policies and practice to improve student learning. This toolkit has been developed to help support countries to align their assessment with global standards and report against SDG 4.1. UIS has developed a menu of options to enable countries to report against SDG 4.1.1, of which the Pairwise Comparison Method (PCM) for measuring global learning outcomes is one. Where appropriate, and to support consistency, some content of this PCM toolkit is based on one of the other options for countries, the Policy Linking Toolkit (PLT).

Place of Publication

Camberwell, Australia


UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Australian Council for Educational Research