Global education monitoring

Publication Date



Pairwise comparison, Learning progressions, Standards, Achievement, National competency tests


The paper sets out several approaches, both statistical and non-statistical, by which jurisdictions may choose to link their assessments to the global standards for reporting. One of these, the Pairwise Comparison Method (PCM), was first set out in Lazendic (2019). This concept note provides further details on the PCM and the work that has taken place since 2019 to enable the approach to be operationalised. The PCM relies on the Learning Progression Scales (LPSs) for reading and mathematics, developed by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). A full description of the development of the scales is provided in the section Technical Note on the construction of the Learning Progression Scales, but in essence they are robust, statistical ordering of items drawn from a range of different assessments that was developed using a pairwise comparison approach.

Place of Publication

Camberwell, Australia


Australian Council for Educational Research