International Conference on Assessment and Learning (ICAL)

Publication Date




Download Full Text (191 KB)


Psychometrics, Measurement, Well being, Airline pilot


Psychometrics, Measurement, Well being


Psychology | Quantitative Psychology


Paper presented at ICAL 2022 — Transforming Assessment and Learning: Making the System Work!

13 - 15 October 2022, Bali, Indonesia


Flight success and accidents rely on the pilot's condition. To date, there is no psychometrically tested instrument to measure the psychological well-being of pilots. This study aims to develop items for measuring the well-being of commercial pilots in Indonesia. The constructs, dimensions, and indicators were formulated through literature reviews and interviews with pilots about their well-being. We develop well-being as a state in which a person feels positive, healthy, prosperous, comfortable, and valued in their work, able to control and contribute to the social environment. The instrument conveyed six dimensions, namely (1) positive emotion, (2) health, (3) competence, (4) recognition, (5) work security, and (6) social relationship. We implemented summated rating scale model (Likert's scale) to write 80 items on a 6-point scale. The scoring was from 1 (never/strongly not agree) to 6 (almost always/strongly agree); the scores for the unfavourable items were reversed. We applied CVI and SCVI methods to examine the instrument's content validity, corrected-item total correlation to test the item homogeneity, and Cronbach's alpha formula to assess the scale reliability. In content validity, we included two psychometrics experts and one well-being expert to evaluate the items' quality via qualitative and quantitative methods. In the qualitative approach, the expert appraised the item's sentence: whether it derived from the indicators, dimensions, and construct, and whether the sentences were comprehended. In quantitative form, the experts assigned scores from 1 to 4, indicating the item's relevance with the construct, clarity, simplicity, and freedom of ambiguity. We recruited 117 commercial pilots via convenience sampling. The content validity testing suggested that 31 items should be revised. The quantitative test showed satisfying results with a CVI average for the relevance aspect of 0.92 and an SCVI/UA of 0.93. Based on the content validity assessment, we decided to retain 62 items. Next, the corrected item-total correlation revealed that 61 items were homogenously measuring the construct. Finally, the reliability testing indicated satisfactory reliability with an alpha of 0.95.

Recommended Citation

Wenas, P. Y., Suryani, A. O., & Sudarnoto, L. F. (2022, 13 - 15 October). Development and psychometric assessment of Pilot’s Well-Being Scale: A study on Indonesians Commercial Pilot. In A. Lesmini (Ed.), Transforming Assessment and Learning: Making the System Work. Proceeding of the 2022 International Conference on Assessment and Learning (pp. 110-121). ACER Indonesia.


Jakarta, Indonesia


ACER Indonesia




Geographic Subject


Item development and psychometric assessment of a pilots' well-being scale: A study on Indonesian commercial pilots


Book Location