International Conference on Assessment and Learning (ICAL)

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Student stress, Measurement, Self evaluation (Individuals)


Student stress, Measurement, Self evaluation (Individuals)


Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Higher Education | International and Comparative Education


Paper presented at ICAL 2022 — Transforming Assessment and Learning: Making the System Work!

13 - 15 October 2022, Bali, Indonesia


Stress is a condition that must be experienced by humans, including students. This happens because every student will always be faced with a condition to meet the demands of the environment. Students will experience stress if they feel they do not have the ability to meet these academic demands. Therefore, an instrument is needed that can measure academic stress felt by students. This study aims to test the construct validity of the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PAS)-Adaptation of Bedewy & Gabriel. Before conducting factor analysis, the adaptation and modification process of the instrument was carried out. The adaptation process was carried out to change the language, from English to Indonesian. The modification process was carried out to adjust the items to the situation and conditions of Indonesian students. The research subjects came from Surabaya State University students, who were in semesters 1, 3 and 5. The validity of the PAS construct was sought using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). To obtain the factors underlying the PAS-Bedewy & Gabriel Adaptation, it was done through 2 stages. Based on the five stages of extraction, 3 supporting theoretical factors were obtained. Factor 1: which relates to perceived academic load, supported by items no. 3, 6, 7 and 8; Factor 2: which relates to examinations, supported by items no. 10 and 11. Factor 3: which relates to confidence in completing assignments or lectures, supported by items no. 5, and 13. The study supports Bedewy & Gabriel's first theoretical construct, which is based on 3 factors namely Factor 1: pressures to perform; Factor 2: perceptions of workload; Factor 3: academic self-perceptions.


Jakarta, Indonesia


ACER Indonesia




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Confirmatory factor analysis of the Perception of Academic Stress Scale (PAS)


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