A longitudinal study conducted by ACER has been monitoring the growth in English literacy and numeracy achievement of a group of 152 Indigenous students in 13 schools through the early years of primary school. Indigenous students' developing English literacy and numeracy skills were assessed at five points over the first three years of school using tasks developed for the ACER Longitudinal Literacy and Numeracy Survey (LLANS). In general, for both the English literacy and for numeracy the achievement of the Indigenous students began at a similar level to that of the main LLANS sample but by the time of the fifth assessment in the third year of school substantial gaps had emerged.
Frigo, T., Corrigan, M., Adams, I., Hughes, P., Stephens, M., & Woods, D. (2004). Supporting English Literacy and Numeracy Learning for Indigenous Students in the Early Years. https://research.acer.edu.au/indigenous_education/10