Indigenous students typically achieve at significantly lower levels than non-Indigenous students by the time they reach year 3. This article reports on the findings of a longitudinal study conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research called the Longitudinal English Literacy and Numeracy Survey for Indigenous Students commenced in 2000. The findings show that there are several key underlaying factors present in schools that support growth in achievement for Indigenous students: leadership; good teaching; student attendance and engagement; and Indigenous presence at the school.
Purdie, N., & Stone, A. (2005). Indigenous students and literacy and numeracy: What does the research say?. https://research.acer.edu.au/indigenous_education/17