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Education in emergencies, Rapid reviews, School systems, Equal education, Emergency programs, Educational policy, Monitoring, Natural disasters, Wellbeing, Disease control, War, Disadvantaged, Teaching methods, International organisations, School leaders, Teachers, Primary secondary education


The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how widespread emergencies can disrupt national education systems and schooling. To assist policy decision-making and monitoring, a rapid review of over 200 documents relating to education in emergencies (EiE) was conducted, with a specific focus on the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the review is to support policymakers, largely in developing countries, to develop policies that promote education system resiliency with a focus on monitoring those policies. From the analysis and synthesis of evidence a new framework has been produced, which assists policymakers by organising the complexity of relevant concerns. This Policy Monitoring Framework (PMF) identifies three key factors – System, Teaching and learning, and Agents – and corresponding sub-factors, which collectively can be used to inform policy decisions. These factors are superimposed upon an emergency in education Preparedness-Response-Recovery cycle. The Policy Monitoring Framework provides a basis for a Policy Monitoring Tool, which in turn supports the planning of educational reforms and monitoring the status of the education system to build resilience.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


Informa UK