Publication Date



Emergency programs, Monitoring, Policy analysis, School systems, Resilience, Frameworks


For a complete description of the Policy Monitoring Tool (PMT) referred to in this document, please see Building resilient education systems: A rapid review of the education in emergencies literature.


Two years on, the COVID-19 pandemic has continued to impact national education systems due to partial or complete closures of schools, or by creating uncertainty around the possibility of school closures. In response, policymakers have developed flexible teaching and learning strategies to support schooling continuity, as well as students, their parents/guardians, teachers, and school leaders (UIS, 2021; UNESCO, 2020). Education in emergencies (EiE) occur when education systems are impacted by events that disrupt learning and schooling, and challenge their resiliency. In addition to communicable diseases, learning and schooling are disrupted by disasters, political conflicts, and complex emergencies and mass displacement. To support education policymakers and stakeholders, such as governments, NGOs, community leaders and teachers, to build resilient education systems, the Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Centre developed two practical policy resources – a Policy Monitoring Framework (PMF) and a Policy Monitoring Tool (PMT).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Place of Publication

Camberwell, Australia


Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)