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In 2006, a nationally representative sample of approximately 13 000 15 year-old students was selected to participate in OECD PISA. More than 10 000 of these young people became the fourth cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. The PISA sample was constructed by randomly selecting fifty 15 year-old students from a sample of schools designed to represent state and sector. Assessments in mathematical literacy, reading literacy, scientific literacy and problem solving were administered to students in their schools to provide information on school achievement for use in later analyses of educational and labour market participation. Students also completed a background questionnaire about their families, educational and vocational plans, and attitudes to school. For the earlier PISA-based LSAY sample in 2003, follow-up telephone interviews were used to obtain further information from students on their schools and on part-time work. In 2006, similar questions were included in the PISA Student Questionnaire completed at school.