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Student assessment, Monitoring (Assessment), Validity, Interrater reliability, Numeracy, Literacy, Reading tests, Mathematics tests, Second language learning, Basic skills, Primary education, Secondary education, Developing countries


This report was prepared by the ACER Centre for Global Education Monitoring as part of the Results for Development Institute (R4D) evaluation of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation's citizen-led assessment initiative.


In 2014 ACER through the Centre for Global Education Monitoring (GEM) worked with Results for Development (R4D) to conduct a broad evaluation the testing tools and processes of four citizen-led learning assessments: The Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) in India, Beekunko in Mali, Jàngandoo in Senegal, and Uwezo in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. As part of this evaluation ACER designed two small quasi-experimental studies to investigate the concurrent validity and inter-rater reliability of Uwezo.

  • The concurrent validity study explored the relationship between performance on Uwezo and performance on EGRA/EGMA (ie instruments that themselves have confirmed validity and reliability).
  • The inter-rater reliability study of Uwezo explored the agreement in the scores assigned by Uwezo volunteers and by an expert rater to children’s responses to the Uwezo tasks.

Both quasi-experimental studies were conducted in Kenya with the support of Qdata Enterprises (the local implementation partner), the Uwezo regional office, Uwezo district coordinators and volunteers, RTI-Kenya personnel and individuals who had been involved in previous RTI-led implementations of EGRA/EGMA.

The report describes in detail the methods used for the quasi-experimental studies and provides an in-depth discussion of the studies’ findings.

The report of the broader evaluation of the four citizen-led assessments was published by R4D: Bringing Learning to Light: The role of citizen-led assessments in shifting the education agenda.

Place of Publication

Washington, DC


Results for Development Institute (R4D)

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