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Learning in an emergency, Coronavirus (COVID-19), Upper primary years, Reading achievement, Mathematics achievement, Developing countries, Monitoring (Assessment), Impact studies


The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted education in many ways. Across the world, schools have been partially or wholly closed, teachers and students have been forced to quarantine at home for short or extended periods of time, social learning opportunities have been cancelled and community interactions curtailed. This has added a further obstacle to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to education. The COVID-19 MILO (Monitoring Impacts on Learning Outcomes) study was designed to provide information on the impact of the pandemic on learning outcomes in six countries in Africa – Burkina Faso, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Senegal and Zambia. The MILO project was implemented to provide a way for countries to measure learning progress against SDG 4.1.1b prior to, during and after the pandemic. This report evaluates the degree to which learning outcomes for students at the end of primary schooling change between two time points: one pre-pandemic and the other in mid-2021 after the pandemic had inflicted substantial disruption upon education contexts. The report also examines the contextual factors at the student, family, school and system levels for their response to the pandemic disruption.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License.

Place of Publication



UNESCO Institute for Statistics



Geographic Subject

Africa, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Senegal, Zambia


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