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There have been a plethora of research reports providing information about the achievements of students in Australian schools and how those achievements differ among jurisdictions and among groups of students. However, each report has often been viewed in isolation from other similar studies. This report is intended to provide an integrated appraisal of the results of the international and national achievement surveys conducted since 1994 but with some references to earlier studies. In addition to limiting the task to manageable proportions, this time span corresponds to the widespread introduction of modern measurement methods so that there is a better basis for the comparison of results across studies and over time. The report examines differences in achievement among groups of students in Australia (including students in different jurisdictions), comparisons of the achievements of students in Australia with their peers in other countries and, where possible, changes in achievement over time for Australian students overall and for groups of students. It is predicated on the assumption that perspectives on the impact of policies and practices on student outcomes can be informed by evidence about the ways in which achievement co-varies with differences in policy and practice and about the extent to which achievement changes over time.