School and system improvement

Publication Date



Adolescent development, Computer mediated communication, Mental health, Online learning, Social adjustment, Social isolation, Well being


This literature review focuses on the effects of remote learning on mental health, including acute mental health issues and possible ongoing implications for student wellbeing and socialisation. It provides an overview of some of the challenges that can impact on the mental health and relationships of young people, many of which have accelerated or become more complex during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the light of concern about rising antisocial behaviour and extremism there is a focus on socialisation and self-regulation on return to school post-pandemic. In the face of limited Australian research on these topics, the review takes a global focus and includes experiences from other countries as evidenced in the emerging research literature. Based on these findings the review offers advice to school leaders regarding the self-regulatory behaviours of students on return to school after periods of remote learning, and addresses social and emotional considerations as students transition back to school. It also considers ways in which schools can promote wellbeing and respond to mental health concerns as a way to address and prevent antisocial behaviours, recognise manifestations in extremism (including religious fundamentalism), and challenge a general rise in extremist views.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Place of Publication

Camberwell, Vic.


Australian Council for Educational Research