Civics and Citizenship Assessment

Young People’s Perception of Europe in a Time of Change: IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 European Report

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Student perceptions, Student attitudes, Citizenship responsibility, Citizen participation, Questionnaires, Racial identification, Immigrants, Equality (Social), Political attitudes


Fourteen countries in Europe and one benchmarking participant (the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia) participated in ICCS 2016.


The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) investigates the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a range of countries. ICCS 2016, a continuation and extension of ICCS 2009, was developed in response to persistent and newly emerging challenges of educating young people in a world where contexts of democracy and civic participation continue to change. In recent years, various political and social issues in Europe have raised concerns about the future co-operation and integration of European countries. The European student questionnaire aimed to assess aspects of civic and citizenship education related to the European context and to the European social and political situation that participating countries in this region consider of specific importance and relevance. The questionnaire also sought to gather information that would allow exploration of students’ attitudes toward the most pressing issues presently confronting Europe (e.g., migration from outside Europe to Europe, freedom of movement across the European borders, the financial crisis) and of students’ sense of European identity. In addition to this, the European student questionnaire gathered data on aspects of students’ attitudes that were also collected during the 2009 ICCS survey. Inclusion of these aspects made it possible to compare results across the two ICCS cycles.

Place of Publication



International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)

Geographic Subject

Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Europe, Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden


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