Civics and Citizenship Assessment

Publication Date



Citizen participation, Political attitudes, Activism, Lower secondary years, Multivariate analysis, Questionnaires, International comparisons


Paper presented at the conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), Aachen, 12-16 August.


Based on survey data from the latest implementation of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2016), this paper explores the associations between students’ civic knowledge, their disposition to and involvement in civic engagement within the school and community context, and their willingness to engage in future civic activities as adults. The multivariate analyses also include factors related to resources for engagement, variables reflecting the psychological disposition towards engagement, and network-related variables in order to explain variation in expected electoral and active political participation. The results show that civic knowledge is related in different ways to expectations of future participation. While students’ civic knowledge is positively related to expectations to engage in elections and voting, more knowledgeable students were less willing to consider more active forms of participation.