Civics and Citizenship Assessment

Publication Date



Citizenship education, Evaluation, Frameworks, Citizen participation, Civics, Adolescents, Year 8, International comparisons, Political attitudes, Democracy, Tests, Measures


The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) investigates the preparation of young people to undertake their roles as citizens. It gathers and analyzes data from representative national samples on students’ conceptual knowledge and understanding of civics and citizenship, as well as their attitudes to, and engagement with, aspects of civics and citizenship. ICCS builds on a succession of IEA studies in this field dating back to 1971, and especially since 2009. The 2022 study has been developed to build on previous perspectives on, and monitor changes in, such enduring issues as: levels of civic knowledge and understanding; patterns of and dispositions toward civic engagement; attitudes to citizenship and equal rights; and schools as spaces for learning about citizenship. In addition, ICCS 2022 encompasses new developments such as increased globalization and migration; the implications of increasing social diversity; the roles of digital technologies in civic engagement and exchanging information; changing attitudes to traditional political systems; and the disruption to schooling associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The assessment framework provides a conceptual underpinning for the international instrumentation for ICCS 2022. It needs to identify and define those aspects of cognitive and affective-behavioral content that should be considered important learning outcomes of civic and citizenship education, as well as contextual factors that are setting the context for students’ civic learning. It should be noted that within the context of this framework, the term “learning outcomes” is used in a broad way and that it is not intended to confine civic and citizenship education to school learning or any specific theoretical perspective. The way students develop civic knowledge and understanding, as well as affective-behavioral dispositions towards civic and citizenship issues, potentially depends on many factors, including those beyond the learning environment at schools.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Place of Publication

Cham, Switzerland




978-3-031-20113-4 (eBook)