Civics and Citizenship Assessment

Publication Date



Political attitudes, Citizenship education, Civics, International studies, National identity, European identity, Migration, Discrimination, Environmental attitudes, Sustainable development, Futures (Of society), Political attitudes, International comparisons, Questionnaires, Year 8, Year 9


Jointly prepared by: Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER – Melbourne, Australia), Libera Università Maria Santissima Assunta (LUMSA Università – Rome, Italy) and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA – Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Hamburg, Germany).

This report is also available to download here: ICCS 2022 European Report: Young Citizens' Views and Engagement in a Changing Europe |


The IEA's International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) investigates the ways in which young people around the world are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens. This report presents the European results from the third cycle of the study (ICCS 2022). Eighteen countries and two benchmarking participants (the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein) administered the European student questionnaire to target grade students in this study cycle. ICCS 2022 studied contexts for and learning outcomes of civic and citizenship education in a wide range of national contexts at the beginning of the third decade of the 21st Century. The general purpose of the European student questionnaire is to explore specific European-related civic and citizenship issues derived from the overarching ICCS 2022 assessment framework, supplementing the data obtained from the international survey with a specific European perspective. The ICCS 2022 European student questionnaire included 12 questions aimed at examining students' interest and their opinions regarding European-related civic and citizenship issues such as students' sense of European identity; students' opportunities for learning about Europe provided by schools; and students' attitudes toward free movement of European citizens within Europe, toward the European Union, and toward cooperation among European countries. It also encompasses questions on students' perceptions of discrimination in their country, of the future of Europe, and of their life in the future, as well as on students' sustainable behaviors and those related to political and ethical consumerism.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Place of Publication



International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement



Geographic Subject

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Estonia, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden