OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

Publication Date



Student surveys, Research methodology, Questionnaires, Databases, Test construction


PISA is methodologically highly complex, requiring intensive collaboration among many stakeholders. The successful implementation of PISA depends on the use, and sometimes further development, of state-of-the-art methodologies and technologies. The PISA 2009 Technical Report describes those methodologies, along with other features that have enabled PISA to provide high quality data to support policy formation and review. The descriptions are provided at a level that will enable review and, potentially, replication of the implemented procedures and technical solutions to problems. This report contains a description of the theoretical underpinning of the complex techniques used to create the PISA 2009 Database, which includes information on 470 000 students in 65 countries. The database includes not only information on student performance in the three main areas of assessment – reading, mathematics and science – but also their responses to the Student Questionnaire that they completed as part of the assessment. Data from the principals of participating schools are also included. The PISA 2009 Database was used to generate information and to be the basis for analysis for the PISA 2009 initial report.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License.

Place of Publication



OECD Publishing


9789264040182 (print) 9789264167872 (PDF)


1990-8539 (print) 1996-3777 (online)